Land Use - Minnesota, Agricultural and Transition Areas

This page last updated: 02/06/2013
Metadata created using Minnesota Geographic Metadata Guidelines


Go to Section:
1. Overview
2. Data Quality
3. Data Organization
4. Coordinate System
5. Attributes
6. Distribution - Get Data
7. Metadata Reference

Section 1 Overview
Originator The International Coalition for Land and Water Stewardship in the Red River Basin
Title Land Use - Minnesota, Agricultural and Transition Areas
Abstract This data set is a product of an effort to update Minnesota's 1969 land use inventory. The project was funded in 1989 by the Minnesota State Legislature on the recommendation of the Legislative Commission on Minnesota Resources (LCMR) in cooperation with the Red River Watershed Management Board. Interpretation and coding of land use were done by The International Coalition for Land and Water Stewardship in the Red River Basin.

Land uses were interpreted using U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) field maps, USDA-Agriculture Stabilization and Conservation Service (ASCS) low altitude 35-mm aerial photography, and Landsat satellite imagery. A 17-category classification scheme based on the Anderson Classification was designed for the project.
Purpose The Land Use/Land Cover project was undertaken with three principal purposes in mind:

1. Provide detailed and up to date land use and land cover information for state resource management and planning projects, local water and watershed planning, and local comprehensive planning projects.

2. Update the 1969 land use/land cover map. This would make it possible to analyze changes in land utilization over the last 20 years.

3. Use the updated and more detailed land use/land cover variable as a unifying component for a new, much more refined and detailed state data base.
Time Period of Content Date 1989
Currentness Reference Ground conditions on 1988, 1989, or 1990 USDA-ASCS aerial photography.
Progress Complete
Maintenance and Update Frequency None Planned
Spatial Extent of Data Southeast, southwest, west central, and northwest regions of the state. See Place Keywords for a county list. The 7 county Twin Cities metro area, Olmsted Co., Camp Ripley (Morrison Co.) & Beltrami Island State Forest (Roseau Co.) are not included.
Bounding Coordinates -97.25
-91.25
49
43.5
Place Keywords Minnesota, Becker, Benton, Big Stone, Blue Earth, Brown, Chippewa, Chisago, Clay, Cottonwood, Dodge, Douglas, Faribault, Fillmore, Freeborn, Goodhue, Grant, Houston, Isanti, Jackson, Kanabec, Kandiyohi, Kittson, Lac qui Parle, Le Sueur, Lincoln, Lyon, McLeod, Mahnomen, Marshall, Martin, Meeker, Morrison, Mower, Murray, Nicollet, Nobles, Norman, Otter Tail, Pennington, Pipestone, Polk, Pope, Red Lake, Redwood, Renville, Rice, Rock, Roseau, Sherburne, Sibley, Stearns, Steele, Stevens, Swift, Todd, Traverse, Wabasha, Waseca, Watonwan, Wilkin, Winona, Wright, Yellow Medicine.
Theme Keywords imageryBaseMapsEarthCover, Land Use, Land Cover, Land Type
Theme Keyword Thesaurus ISO 19115 Topic Category
Access Constraints None
Use Constraints See Disclaimer field for complete use conditions.If downloading the data from DNR's Data Deli, you will need to accept DNR's General Geographic Data License Agreement.
Contact Person Information Nancy Rader, GIS Data Coordinator
Minnesota Geospatial Information Office
658 Cedar Street
St. Paul, MN  55155
Phone: 651-201-2489
Fax: 651-296-3698
Email: clearing.house@state.mn.us
Browse Graphic Click to view a data sample
Associated Data Sets For more information about land use/cover data for Minnesota, see: www.mngeo.state.mn.us/chouse/land_use.html

Section 2 Data Quality
Attribute Accuracy Quadrangles digitized at DPA International were visually checked by personnel at DPA International by placing original interpretation mylars over checkplots. Quadrangles digitized at Alexandria Technical College were visually checked by personnel at both Alexandria Technical College and LMIC by placing original interpretation mylars over checkplots.

Some attribute errors may have been introduced during the original digitizing or during creation of the county files (particularly along 1:24,000-scale quadrangle boundaries).
Reported Errors:
1. The western half of the city of Roseau (Roseau County) does not exist as a separate polygon in either the quad or county file and is incorrectly coded as 21 (cultivated land).
2. The northern half of the city of Wabasha (Wabasha County) does not exist as a separate polygon in the county file and is incorrectly coded as 50 (water).
If the files can be corrected, replacement files will be posted on the DNR Data Deli.
Logical Consistency Data are topologically structured and verified within ARC/INFO.
Completeness Quality reviews of these data by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources reveal significant irregularities along the borders of adjacent quad-based tiles. These include positional off-sets, missing features, and inconsistent representations. These conditions suggest that the data were developed under variable interpretation rules which will affect the completeness of the data set in some areas.

Two areas within the counties listed in Place Keywords were not included in this project: Beltrami Island State Forest in southeast Roseau County (this area is coded '99') and Camp Ripley in northern Morrison County (this area is treated as outside the data set boundary and thus is not coded at all). See Associated Data Sets Element for a reference to a data set covering this area.
Horizontal Positional Accuracy No quantitative positional test of the data has been performed.
Vertical Positional Accuracy Not applicable
Lineage Data Sources:
1:24,000 USGS 7.5-Minute quadrangles
1:24,000 US Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) mylar maps
1988, 1989, and 1990 US Dept. of Agriculture - Agriculture Stabilization and Conservation Service (USDA-ASCS) low altitude color aerial photography (35-mm section centered enforcement slides)
Landsat satellite imagery

PROCESSING STEPS

Preparation of Interpretation Mylars:

The land use/land cover interpretation was completed by DPA International, Grand Forks, ND. The principal base map was the 1:24,000 USGS 7.5-minute quadrangle map. The interpretation mylar was placed over the 7.5-minute quadrangle on a light table and a neatline (boundary) was drawn. Then, eight geo-reference points were added to the mylar to create accurate digital files. These eight geo-reference points (latitude/longitude coordinates) are found on USGS 7.5-minute quadrangles: the four corners of the map and the four 2.5-minute internal marks represented by small black plusses. An additional set of four internal ground control points were also added to the mylar. Section corners were utilized most often and were inked onto the mylar as small plusses. In areas where section corners were not apparent, other prominent features spaced at regular intervals were used. These features included road intersections, the intersections of roads and streams, the branching points of small streams, and other such relatively permanent landscape features.

Land Use/Land Cover Interpretation:

The interpretation process was designed to utilize the 1:24,000 USFWS National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) mylar maps as a base. The USDA-ASCS 35-mm color aerial photography was used primarily to update the land use/land cover information on the NWI maps. The NWI maps were mounted on a light table with the interpretation mylars overlaying them. The USDA-ASCS slides were projected on a small vertical screen next to the NWI maps so the interpreter could easily look up to check for details, verify land use/land cover changes, and update the information on the NWI maps. The interpreter completed one section at a time. Pencil mylar maps were made for each USGS quadrangle. Each quadrangle map was interpreted twice in order to reduce errors in interpretation and polygon mislabels.

The interpreted mylars were then mounted on a Krones precision system. The Landsat satellite imagery was projected on the mylars at a scale of 1:24,000 with distortion removed to further update and verify land use/land cover classes. If necessary, additional changes were made on the mylar. These changes generally related to agriculture and grasslands, and deciduous-coniferous forest boundaries. DPA International interpreted a total of 1,017 quadrangles for this project.

Digitizing:

DPA International digitized 809 of the interpreted quadrangles. The interpreted mylars were edge matched and then digitized using TYDAC SPANS. The files were exported from TYDAC SPANS in DXF format with ground control points in UTM Zone 15 feet coordinates. The DXF files were then converted to Ultimap graphics files (SGR) for editing and entry into the Ultimap database. The Ultimap land use/land cover files were converted to DXF or DLG format and delivered to the Minnesota Land Management Information Center (LMIC) where they were converted to ARC/INFO coverages.

The remaining 208 interpreted quadrangles were digitized by students and staff at Alexandria Technical College. The original interpretation mylars were scanned at 400 dpi and saved as TIFF files by CAD Specialists Corp., St. Peter, MN. The scanned raster images were brought into AutoCAD using CAD Overlay ESP and then digitized on screen to convert them into vector format. Finally, the vector files were converted to ARC/INFO coverages.

Further Processing:

The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources created county files from the original 1:24,000 quad files. The quad files did not edgematch seamlessly since each quad corner tic had been individually digitized for each quad. Using ARC/INFO, MnDNR compared the quad files with their standard quad boundary file (Q024ine4). Any arcs that did not reach the quad boundary were extended to meet it; any arcs that extended beyond the boundary were clipped to the boundary. The files were then joined into county files and projected to the NAD83 datum.

DNR provided the county files to LMIC as ARC/INFO export files. These were converted to shapefile format at LMIC.

Section 3 Spatial Data Organization (not used in this metadata)

Section 4 Coordinate System
Horizontal Coordinate Scheme Universal Transverse Mercator
UTM Zone Number 15
Horizontal Datum NAD83
Horizontal Units meters

Section 5 Attributes
Overview The land cover classifications used in this project were generally derived from 'A Classification Manual for Land Cover and Land Use in Minnesota' produced in 1978 by the Minnesota State Planning Agency under a project funded by the Legislative Commission on Minnesota Resources.

The objective of the current classification scheme was to provide as much consistency as possible with the 1969 land use categories while, at the same time, recognizing current user needs and better data sources. The categories were developed in consultation with local users and state agencies, and have evolved as these needs have been defined more clearly and as new conditions developed as the project progressed.


1989 LAND USE/LAND COVER CLASS DESCRIPTIONS

URBAN OR BUILT-UP

11 - Urban and Industrial
This category includes cities, towns, and villages with place names. Small residential areas without USGS topographic map place names are classified as rural residential developments (see category 13 below). The urban and industrial category also includes commercial, industrial or urban developments that are included within, or are directly associated with, an urban area. Examples include: manufacturing and processing plants, power plants, urban airports, and waste treatment plants.

12 - Farmsteads and Rural Residences
Farmsteads - Include the farmhouse and adjoining farmyard areas. Farmsteads also include buildings such as machinery storage areas, grain storage facilities, and corrals and livestock holding and feeding areas directly associated with the farmyard area.

Rural Residences - Are non-urban residences other than farmsteads. Rural residences include the residence, associated structures such as garages and sheds, and the associated landscaped area. This category includes from one to four residences in close proximity, with no distinguishable, intervening, non-residential features.

13 - Rural Residential Development Complexes
This category includes rural residences, as defined above, in a complex that includes five or more residences in close enough proximity to be mapped as a single unit.

14 - Other Rural Developments
This category includes commercial and industrial, cultural and recreational, and agricultural developments not directly associated with urban areas.

Commercial and Industrial - Developments include substations, communications facilities, power plants, small private airstrips, junkyards, landfills, storage maintenance yards, businesses, factories, lumber mills, commercial livestock and poultry operations, and grain operations.

Cultural and Recreational - Developments include built-up factories and service areas associated with parks and rest areas, camp grounds, and golf courses. It also includes churches, cemeteries, community halls, and rural schools.

Agriculture - Developments include those agricultural facilities not directly associated with farmsteads. It includes machine storage areas, grain storage areas, barns and corrals, and isolated buildings. It also includes isolated farmsteads that no longer have apparent road access.


AGRICULTURAL LAND

21 - Cultivated Land
Cultivated land includes those areas under intensive cropping or rotation, including periods when a parcel may be fallow. It represents land planted to forage or cover crop. The units exhibit linear or other patterns associated with current or relatively recent tillage.

22 - Pasture Land
Land in active pasture use. This class was discontinued and combined into 23.

23 - Transitional Agricultural Land
This category includes areas that show evidence of past tillage but do not now appear to be continuously cropped or in a crop rotation. Parcels in this unit include fields that are idle or abandoned and may or may not have been planted to a cover crop. In addition to displaying some evidence of past tillage, they usually are relatively uniform in vegetation.


GRASSLANDS AND GRASSLAND-SHRUB-TREE COMPLEX

31 - Grassland
This unit includes grasslands and herbaceous plants. It may contain up to one-third shrubs and/or tree cover. Areas may be small to extensive, and range from regular to very irregular in shape. They are often found between agricultural land and more heavily wooded areas, and along right-of-ways and drainages. These areas may be mowed or grazed, and range in appearance from very smooth to quite mottled.

32 - Grassland-Shrub-Tree Complex (Deciduous)
This classification includes a combination of grass, shrubs, and trees, in which the deciduous tree cover comprises from one-third to two-thirds of the area, and/or the shrub cover comprises more than one-third of the area. This complex is often found adjacent to grassland or forested areas, but may be found alone. These areas are often irregular in shape and vary greatly in extent.

33 - Grassland-Shrub-Tree Complex (Coniferous)
This classification includes a combination of grass, shrubs, and trees, in which the coniferous tree cover comprises from one-third to two-thirds of the area, and/or the shrub cover comprises more than one-third of the area. This complex is often found adjacent to grassland or forested areas, but may be found alone. These areas are often irregular in shape and vary greatly in extent.


FOREST

41 - Deciduous Forest
This classification includes areas with at least two-thirds of the total canopy cover composed of predominantly woody deciduous species. It may contain coniferous species but it is dominated by deciduous species. It includes woodlots, shelterbelts, and other planted areas.

42 - Coniferous Forest
This classification includes areas with at least two-thirds of the total canopy cover composed of predominantly woody coniferous species. It may contain deciduous species but it is dominated by coniferous species. It includes woodlots, shelterbelts, and other planted areas.


WATER

50 - Water
This category includes permanent water bodies, including lakes (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lacustrine System 'L'), rivers, reservoirs, stock ponds, and permanent palustrine open water (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service POWH). Intermittently exposed palustrine open water areas (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service POWG, POWJ, POWZ) are included in this open water category when the photo evidence indicates that the area is covered by water the majority of the time.

61 - Wetlands
This category includes wetlands visible on the photography with an area of at least 2 acres. Wetlands boundaries are delineated from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetland Inventory data. In cases where these boundaries have changed (such as for drained wetlands), the boundaries are determined from the current photography.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetland Inventory types included in this category are semi-permanent palustrine emergent wetlands (PEMF and PEMY categories) and areas of semi-permanent palustrine open water (POWF) associated with PEMF through PEMY wetlands, as defined in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetland Inventory. These categories represent basins with deep-water emergents (primarily cattail, bulrush, and whitetop) and open water inclusions. Where U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service data are not available, wetland classification will be based on the distribution of visible deep-water emergents and open water inclusions.

Temporary, saturated, seasonal, and intermittently exposed palustrine wetlands will, in most cases, be mapped according to dominant cover type visible on the photography (e.g., open grassland, cultivated, grass-shrub-tree complex, etc.) rather than as wetlands.


MISCELLANEOUS

71 - Gravel Pits and Open Mines
This category includes areas stripped of top soil with exposed substrate. Gravel pit areas that have been reclaimed either naturally or artificially are classified as the current cover type.

72 - Bare Rock
This category includes areas of rock outcrops that lack appreciable soil development or vegetative cover.

73 - Exposed Soil, Sandbars, and Sand Dunes
This category includes areas lacking appreciable plant cover that are not gravel pits or bare rock.

80 - Unclassified
This category includes areas that could not be classified into any of the other categories.

99 - Outside State or Outside County (or Outside Project: Beltrami Island State Forest in Roseau County)

0 - Unlabeled (Not labeled on original mylar)
Detailed Citation 'A Classification Manual for Land Cover and Land Use in Minnesota', produced in 1978 by the Minnesota State Planning Agency.
Table Detail:

Section 6 Distribution
Publisher Minnesota Land Management Information Center (LMIC)
Publication Date 11/1996
Contact Person Information Nancy Rader, GIS Data Coordinator
Minnesota Geospatial Information Office
658 Cedar Street
St. Paul, MN  55155
Phone: 651-201-2489
Fax: 651-296-3698
Email: clearing.house@state.mn.us
Distributor's Data Set Identifier luse89
Distribution Liability MnGeo's data disclaimer is here: www.mngeo.state.mn.us/chouse/disclaimer.html

If downloading the data from DNR's Data Deli, you will need to accept DNR's General Geographic Data License Agreement.
Ordering Instructions The shapefile version of the county files is distributed on the internet via the DNR Data Deli by clicking below after Online Linkage. Choose 'International Coalition Land Use/Land Cover' from the list of available layers.
Online Linkage I AGREE to the notice in "Distribution Liability" above. Clicking to agree will either begin the download process or link to download information. See "Ordering Instructions" above for details.

Section 7 Metadata Reference
Metadata Date 02/06/2013
Contact Person Information Nancy Rader, GIS Data Coordinator
Minnesota Geospatial Information Office
658 Cedar Street
St. Paul, MN  55155
Phone: 651-201-2489
Fax: 651-296-3698
Email: clearing.house@state.mn.us
Metadata Standard Name Minnesota Geographic Metadata Guidelines
Metadata Standard Version 1.2
Metadata Standard Online Linkage http://www.mngeo.state.mn.us/committee/standards/mgmg/metadata.htm


This page last updated: 02/06/2013
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