Peat Inventory Data - Minnesota

This page last updated: 2003
Metadata created using Minnesota Geographic Metadata Guidelines


Metadata Summary

Originator Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Division of Lands and Minerals
Abstract Beginning in 1975 and continuing today, there has been a renewed interest in peat for horticulture and for fuel. This interest prompted the development of the Peat Inventory Project in 1976 to outline the dimensions of major peat areas in northern Minnesota and to determine the quantity, quality, type, and depth of the peat deposits. This is the information that is stored in this database.

The DNR planned to utilize the inventory data for three purposes: to assess the horticultural potential of the state's resources, to assess the energy potential of the state's peatland, and to support a comprehensive state policy on peatland management. With the U.S. Department of Energy funding beginning in 1979, the DNR accelerated and expanded peat investigations in Minnesota.

Nine data tables, stored in one Access database, record the findings of the Peat Inventory at individual peat sites in twenty Minnesota counties. The shapefile, invsite, was created from one of these tables.
Browse Graphic none available
Time Period of Content Date 2007
Currentness Reference This dataset is considered to be on-going. For the most part, the data stored in the tables are considered current and reflect the conditions found at the site on the date visited. Any additional inventory work that is done will be added to this dataset. Peat inventory sites described are from 1976-1988, 1992, 1994, 1995, 2001, 2006.
Access Constraints
Use Constraints Acknowledgement of the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources is appreciated for products derived from these data.
Distributor Organization Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Division of Lands and Minerals
Ordering Instructions The data is available in a zipfile by clicking on the 'Online Linkage' below. The zipfile, peatinv.zip, contains a shapefile of the Peat Inventory site locations, an Access 2000 database containing 9 different tables of data related to each site, and this metadata.
Online Linkage Click here to download data. (See Ordering Instructions above for details.) By clicking here, you agree to the notice in "Distribution Liability" in Section 6 of this metadata.

Full Metadata

Peat Inventory Data - Minnesota

Go to Section:
1. Identification Information
2. Data Quality Information
3. Spatial Data Organization Information
4. Spatial Reference Information
5. Entity and Attribute Information
6. Distribution Information
7. Metadata Reference Information

 
Section 1 Identification Information   Top of page
Originator Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Division of Lands and Minerals
Title Peat Inventory Data - Minnesota
Abstract Beginning in 1975 and continuing today, there has been a renewed interest in peat for horticulture and for fuel. This interest prompted the development of the Peat Inventory Project in 1976 to outline the dimensions of major peat areas in northern Minnesota and to determine the quantity, quality, type, and depth of the peat deposits. This is the information that is stored in this database.

The DNR planned to utilize the inventory data for three purposes: to assess the horticultural potential of the state's resources, to assess the energy potential of the state's peatland, and to support a comprehensive state policy on peatland management. With the U.S. Department of Energy funding beginning in 1979, the DNR accelerated and expanded peat investigations in Minnesota.

Nine data tables, stored in one Access database, record the findings of the Peat Inventory at individual peat sites in twenty Minnesota counties. The shapefile, invsite, was created from one of these tables.
Purpose The Peat Inventory Project was created in 1976 as a sub-program of the Minnesota Peat Program. Its purpose was to assess the horticultural and energy potential of the state's peat resource and to support a comprehensive state policy on peatland management. Beginning in 1979 and continuing for several years, the MN DNR received funding from the U.S. Department of Energy, which accelerated and expanded fuel peat investigations in Minnesota.

The DNR employed two types of peatland surveys: reconnaissance and detailed. Reconnaissance surveys, by definition, are broad in scope and designed to collect information for general land-use planning and to locate areas with potential for development. Data were collected at random locations and sometimes along traverses in the often remote and almost inaccessible northern peatlands. At observation sites, crews collected notes on the peatland vegetation, determined the peat type throughout the profile, measured the peat depth, and collected samples for analysis.

Detailed surveys, by definition, are more focused, site-specific investigations, designed to specify development potential. The detailed surveys were undertaken following the ranking of survey areas according to their potential. Staff investigated the exact quality and quantity of the peat, as well as site characteristics that affect the cost of development. The survey results include written reports that have isopact maps of the deposits, descriptions of the peat material, cross sections that illustrate the botanical components and humidification of the deposits, volume and tonnage estimates, and surface elevation maps. The detailed surveys were conducted using grid survey techniques, in which resource data are collected systematically at points on a grid.

This database contains the findings of the Peat Inventory Project, stored in nine data tables that are described more fully in the Entity-Attribute Overview section below.
Time Period of Content Date 2007
Currentness Reference This dataset is considered to be on-going. For the most part, the data stored in the tables are considered current and reflect the conditions found at the site on the date visited. Any additional inventory work that is done will be added to this dataset. Peat inventory sites described are from 1976-1988, 1992, 1994, 1995, 2001, 2006.
Progress In work
Maintenance and Update Frequency As needed
Spatial Extent of Data Minnesota, including sites in the following counties: Aitkin, Beltrami, Benton, Carlton, Cass, Chisago, Clearwater, Crow Wing, Hubbard, Itasca, Kanabec, Kittson, Koochiching, Lake, Lake of the Woods, Marshall, Mille Lacs, Pine, Roseau, St. Louis
Bounding Coordinates -97.5
-89.00
49.5
43.0
Place Keywords Minnesota and the counties of Aitkin, Beltrami, Benton, Carlton, Cass, Chisago, Clearwater, Crow Wing, Hubbard, Itasca, Kanabec, Kittson, Koochiching, Lake, Lake of the Woods, Marshall, Mille Lacs, Pine, Roseau, St. Louis
Theme Keywords geoscientificInformation, peat, Peat Inventory site descriptions, fuel peat, horticultural peat, degree of decomposition, peatland classification, site vegetation, laboratory analysis, profile descriptions, peat samples
Theme Keyword Thesaurus
Access Constraints
Use Constraints Acknowledgement of the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources is appreciated for products derived from these data.
Contact Person Information Renee Johnson, GIS Specialist
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Division of Lands and Minerals
500 Lafayette Road
St. Paul, MN 55155-4045
Phone: 651-259-5959
FAX: 651-296-5939
E-mail: renee.johnson@dnr.state.mn.us
Browse Graphic none available
Browse Graphic File Description
Associated Data Sets 1) Peat Inventory Published Maps and Reports - Minnesota, were published as the following reports and maps. In 2007, the maps were scanned and rectified and the reports were scanned. The metadata about this related dataset can be found at
http://www.lmic.state.mn.us/chouse/metadata/peatmaps.html

The County (partial county) surveys and maps were published as:
- Olson, D.J., T.J. Malterer, D.R. Mellem, B. Leuelling, and E.J. Tome. 1979. Inventory of Peat Resources in SW St. Louis County, Minnesota. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. The title of the associated map is An Evaluation of Surficial Geology with Peat Resources Delineated, SW St. Louis County, Minnesota.
- Severson, L.S., H.D. Mooers, and T.J. Malterer. 1980. Inventory of Peat Resources, Koochiching County, Minnesota. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. The titles of two associated maps are Peat Resources, Koochiching County, Minnesota, and Surficial Geology, Koochiching County, Minnesota.
- Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 1982. Inventory of Peat Resources, Aitkin County, Minnesota. The title of the associated map is Peat Resources, Aitkin County, Minnesota.
- Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 1984. Inventory of Peat Resources, An Area of Beltrami and Lake of the Woods Counties, Minnesota. The title of the associated map is Peat Resources, An Area of Beltrami and Lake of the Woods Counties, Minnesota. The title of a second map, published separately from the Peat Inventory report, but covering the similar area, is An Evaluation of the Surficial Geology and Bog Patterns of the Red Lake Bog, Beltrami and Lake of the Woods Counties, Minnesota.

2) Additional MN DNR Peat Resource references (not available for download since they are not in digital format):
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 1987. Peat Resource Estimation in Minnesota, Final Report.
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 1987. The Minnesota Peat Program Summary Report: 1981-1986.
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 1981. Minnesota Peat Program Final Report.

3) Reports of detailed surveys for a number of peatlands have also been produced, but are not available for download since they are not in a digital format.

4) To differentiate wetlands from uplands and approximate the areal extent of the peatlands inventoried by the Peat Inventory Program, one can use the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) data available from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

 
Section 2 Data Quality Information Top of full metadata Top of page
Attribute Accuracy
Logical Consistency
Completeness
Horizontal Positional Accuracy The locations of the inventory sites were mapped on USGS 1:24,000 quadrangles. The UTM east coordinate was manually measured off of the quads and entered as a 6-digit integer, rounded to the 10s place, into a data table. The UTM north coordinate was manually measured off of the quads and entered as a 7-digit integer, rounded to the 10s place, into a data table.
Lineage The peat inventory sites were marked on 1:24000 USGS quadrangles. At a later time, a 1000 meter x 1000 meter grid was placed over each map, using the UTM tic marks to register the grid to the map. Within each 1000 m x 1000 m area, a second grid was used to place the sites within 15 to 20 meters of their locations. These locations, using NAD 27, were entered into the Locate table under the UTM_E27 and UTM_N27 fields. Arc/INFO (by ESRI) was used to project these points into UTM, NAD83, locations, and into UTM, NAD83, extended zone 15 locations.
Source Scale Denominator 24000
 
Section 3 Spatial Data Organization Information Top of full metadata Top of page
Native Data Set Environment Access 2000 and Arcview 3.3
Geographic Reference for Tabular Data
Spatial Object Type Point
Vendor Specific Object Types Point
Tiling Scheme Minnesota
 
Section 4 Spatial Reference Information Top of full metadata Top of page
Horizontal Coordinate Scheme UTM
Ellipsoid GRS80
Horizontal Datum NAD83
Horizontal Units Meters
Distance Resolution
UTM Zone Number 15E
 
Section 5 Entity and Attribute Information Top of full metadata Top of page
Entity and Attribute Overview There is one Access (version 2000) database that contains 9 data tables (Locate, Siteinfo, SiteDNR, Profinfo, Profile, VonPost, Labdnr, Labprox, and Labulti) and one Arcview shapefile (invsite, created from two of the fields in the Locate table). The Access database contains a startup form that allows a user to 1) get basic information about the Peat Inventory sites (e.g., the number of sites, the number of sites per county, the number of sites with laboratory data), 2) display individual site descriptions, or 3) generate reports of the sites, profile descriptions, and laboratory analyses by county or township.

Each table is described below, with attributes listed separately.
Each table, other than the VonPost table, and the shapefile contain one field to be used to match all of the records. This field is DNR Peat Inventory ID # for the tables and DNR_PEAT_I for the shapefile. The tables and shapefile can be related in the following manner:
1) There is a one-to-one relationship among invsite shapefile, Locate, Siteinfo, SiteDNR, and Profinfo.
2) There is a one-to-many relationship between the files listed above and Profile, Labdnr, Labprox, Labulti.
3) The VonPost table is included to correlate the Von Post scale of decomposition with the USDA Soil Conservation Service soil classification, and to provide a description of the characteristics associated with each level of decomposition.

Locate - stores the locational information about the sites visited, including the county, township, range, section, text description of the location in the section in relation to a section corner, and the UTM coordinates in NAD27 (zone 14 and 15), in NAD83 (zones 14 and 15), and in NAD83 (extended zone 15).

Siteinfo - stores a general description of the site, including the peatland name, if there is a common name often used; additional information about the site, such as what type of survey was done in this location; landform patterns present; peatland classification based on the wetland plant communities; the vegetation found at the site; the microrelief of the site; depth to water table; and measured elevation.

SiteDNR - stores information about peat leases, land exchanges/sales requested, and surface ownership - generally in relation to the peat lease or land exchange requested. The records in this table were current at the time of the inventory work, but have not been updated. Also, some sites were inventoried when they were part of a public/private partnership.

Profinfo - stores various comments about the surface conditions at or near the site or about the profile description; the moisture of the peat; previous Iron Range Resources and Rehabilitation Board (IRRRB) reports on the peatland; who described the peatland and when; and if there is laboratory (both DNR and DOE) analysis available for the site. If DNR laboratory analysis is available, the results are stored in Labdnr. If DOE laboratory analysis is available, the results are stored in Labprox and Labulti.

Profile - stores the characteristics (stratigraphy) of the peat profile as it was sampled. A Davis or Macaulay sampler was used to bring up a small sample at regular intervals in the profile. The top and bottom of each section of the profile that contained similar peat is given, along with the amount of decomposition of the peat (given using the Von Post scale), the botanical origin of the peat (refer to the explanatory notes* below), the classification of the peat using a correlation of the Von Post scale of decomposition and the nomenclature of the USDA Soil Conservation Service (refer to explanatory notes** below), a unique ID for each profile description, and a number indicating which part of a specific site's profile one is looking at.

*Botanical origin
From the mid 1970s to July 1983, the botanical origin was described as Sphagnum moss remains (M), Reed and sedge remains (RS), Wood fragment remains (WF), or a combination, such as WF/RS, which indicates that remains of reed/sedge and wood was present.
Since August 1983, another method of defining botanical origin has been used. In this classification, each sample is composed of six parts. The numbers, ranging from 1 to 6, indicate the relative proportion of the particular peat types in a sample. The peat types in parentheses indicate that these plant remains are present, but that the proportion comprises less than one-sixth of the sample. As an example, (N)C2S4 indicates that sphagnum mosses comprise approximately 4/6 of the sample, carex remains comprise approximately 2/6 of the sample, and remains from shrubs are present, but they comprise less than 1/6 of the sample. All of the peat types are listed below (and are also included under Valid Values in the definintion of the associated Profile table).
S=Sphagnum mosses, C=Carex (sedge), CS=Carex/Sphagnum peat (Sphagnum peat dominates), SC=Sphagnum/Carex peat (Carex peat dominates), B=Bryales mosses, N=Wood remains of shrubs, L=Wood remains of trees, Mn=Remains of Menyanthes, Sch=Remains of Scheuchzeria, Eq=Remains of Equisetum, Phg=Remains of Phragmites, Er=Remains of Eriophorum, Dg=Detritus granosus

Since September 1986, the botanical components of the peat material have been further described. In the botanical origin field, these modifiers are found after the main classification, following a slash, and are listed as a combination of lower case letters (e.g.,
(N)C2S4 /lcs). The modifiers are
lcs = long carex strands; sc = sphagnum section cuspidata species, also called yellow stem sphagnum; nf = non-fuscum sphagnum species; ss = sphagnum stems; ln = tree needles

**Classification
The USDA Soil Conservation Service nomenclature is correlated with the von Post scale of decomposition in the following manner:
Fibric = H1 to H3
Hemic = H4 to H6
Sapric = H7 to H10

For the material underlying the peat, the following terms are used,
Limnic = Aquatic peat
Min.soil = Mineral soil

Soil textural classes are used separately or in combination with other classes, where
c = clay
si = silt For example, silt loam is abbreviated as sil.
s = sand
l = loam
g = gravel

Additional modifiers were used to further define the soil texture, including
co = coarse
m = medium For example, vfs = very fine sand, cos = coarse sand.
f = fine
vf = very fine

VonPost - stores the degree of decomposition, using the von Post scale, the USDA Soil Conservation Service classification, plus the characteristics of the peat at each degree of decomposition, including the nature of water expressed on squeezing the sample, proportion of peat extruded between fingers, the nature of the plant residues, and the decomposition description.

Labdnr - stores the results of the DNR laboratory analysis of samples taken from intervals within the peat profile at a site. A Macaulay sampler was used to collect undisturbed peat samples of known volume within specific layers of the deposit. The top and bottom of each sample is given, along with bulk density (g/cc), moisture content (%), pH, and ash content (%).
Bulk density is a measure of the weight of a given volume of soil. The volume is usually measured wet because soil volume changes with water content. The bulk density depends upon the organic, mineral, and moisture contents of the peat. As the mineral content increases, bulk density increases; as the moisture content increases, bulk density decreases. Because bulk density increases with increasing decomposition of the peat, bulk density values can be used as an indirect measure of the degree of decomposition.
Moisture content is a measure of the amount of water that peat absorbs and retains. The amount of water that can be retained depends largely on the degree of decomposition and the botanical origin of the peat. Less decomposed peats have a greater water-holding capacity than those that are more decomposed. The moisture content of sphagnum moss peat is greater than for other peat types. The cellular structure of the moss leaves and stems and the large surface area of the plant, which results from the many small, overlapping leaves and the dense, interwoven growth pattern, increase the water-holding capacity of the plant, and thus, the peat.
pH values describe the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution. The pH values range from 1 to 14, with values less than 7 indicating acidity and values greater than 7 indicating alkalinity. The pH of peat is primarily dependent on the water chemistry, botanical origin, and the decomposition of the peat. Most peat types are acidic (pH values of about 4 to 7) or circumneutral (about pH 7). The pH was measured in (1) a suspension of deionized H2O and (2) a suspension of 0.01M CaCl2. The results of both methods are given in the table.
Ash is the residue left after a sample is heated to a sufficient temperature to drive off all combustible material. The residue comes from the original peat-forming vegetation as well as from sediment brought into the peatland by runoff from mineral soiland as atmospheric dust. As a result of mineralization during decomposition, ash content increases as the degree of decomposition increases.

Labprox - stores the laboratory results of samples analyzed by the DOE Coal Analysis Laboratory. A Macaulay sampler was used to collect undisturbed peat samples of known volume within specific layers of the deposit. The top and bottom of each sample is given, along with heating value (Btu/lb), and moisture content, ash content, volatiles, and fixed carbon, given as percentages.
Heating value is a measure of the energy released by a fuel when it is completely burned. It is expressed in Btu/pound of material, but for energy estimates that are regional or national in scope, Btu values are converted to quads of energy (1 quad = 1 x 1015 Btu).
Moisture content is a measure of the amount of water that peat absorbs and retains.
Ash content is the inorganic fraction of the fuel that remains after combustion and must be removed from the combustion facility.
Volatiles is the gaseous fraction of the fuel, composed mainly of hydrogen and hydrogen-carbon compounds, that is removed by heating the fuel.
Fixed carbon is that portion of the fuel that remains after the volatile matter is driven off before combustion. It is burned in a solid state, such as on a stoker, or as particles in a suspension boiler.
Note: Proximate analysis provides data on the characteristics of a peat fuel when it is burned. It is expressed in percentages.

Labulti - stores the results of the DOE Coal Analysis Laboratory analysis of samples taken from intervals within the peat profile at a site. A Macaulay sampler was used to collect undisturbed peat samples of known volume within specific layers of the deposit. The top and bottom of each sample is given, along with percentages of total carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen.
Note: Ultimate analysis identifies the constituents of peat and are used in combustion calculations and for determining plant efficiencies and potential pollutants.
Entity and Attribute Detailed Citation ftp://ftp.lmic.state.mn.us/pub/dnr/attributes/peatinv_att.htm
 
Section 6 Distribution Information Top of full metadata Top of page
Publisher Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Division of Lands and Minerals
Publication Date Periodically revised
Contact Person Information Renee Johnson
GIS Specialist
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Division of Lands and Minerals
500 Lafayette Road
St. Paul, MN 55155-4045
Phone: 651-259-5959
FAX: 651-296-5939
E-mail: renee.johnson@dnr.state.mn.us
Distributor's Data Set Identifier
Distribution Liability The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources makes no representation or warranties, express or implied, with respect to the reuse of data provided herewith, regardless of its format or the means of its transmission. There is no guarantee or representation to the user as to the accuracy, currency, suitability, or reliability of this data for any purpose. The user accepts the data 'as is', and assumes all risks associated with its use. By accepting this data, the user agrees not to transmit this data or provide access to it or any part of it to another party unless the user shall include with the data a copy of this disclaimer. The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources assumes no responsibility for actual or consequential damage incurred as a result of any user's reliance on this data.
Transfer Format Name
Transfer Format Version Number
Transfer Size
Ordering Instructions The data is available in a zipfile by clicking on the 'Online Linkage' below. The zipfile, peatinv.zip, contains a shapefile of the Peat Inventory site locations, an Access 2000 database containing 9 different tables of data related to each site, and this metadata.
Online Linkage Click here to download data. (See Ordering Instructions above for details.) By clicking here, you agree to the notice in "Distribution Liability" above.
 
Section 7 Metadata Reference Information Top of full metadata Top of page
Metadata Date 2003
Contact Person Information Renee Johnson, GIS Specialist
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Division of Lands and Minerals
500 Lafayette Road
St. Paul, MN 55155-4045
Phone: 651-259-5959
FAX: 651-296-5939
E-mail: renee.johnson@dnr.state.mn.us
Metadata Standard Name Minnesota Geographic Metadata Guidelines
Metadata Standard Version 1.2
Metadata Standard Online Linkage http://www.lmic.state.mn.us/gc/stds/metadata.htm


This page last updated: 2003